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The Baum Bugle: Autumn 2021

The Baum Bugle, vol. 65, no. 2 (Autumn 2021)

Editor-in-Chief Sarah K. Crotzer
Bibliography Editor Peter E. Hanff
News Editor Zoe O’Haillin-Berne
Reviews Editor Atticus Gannaway
Oz Gazette Editor Nick Campbell
Editorial Assistant Christina Maffa


Layout and cover design by Sarah K. Crotzer

Cover art by Gabriel Gale

Autumn 2021 Selected Contents

This a guide to the most significant articles and reviews of the issue for the benefit of researchers, scholars and collectors. The issue includes additional content such as news, departments, etc.


A Few Words About Oz

Michael Patrick Hearn introduces the artistic interpretations of Gabriel Gale, whose new book, The Art of Oz, includes digitally enhanced drawings of dozens of Baum creatures, characters, and species to create a scientifically  and anatomically “realistic” approach to the famous fairyland and its denizens.

Encountering the Demon of Electricity

Robert Luehrs considers the origins of the Demon of Electricity from The Master Key and how Baum uses the character to merge theological ideas with 20th century interests in technological innovation.

Delving into Gnome Man’s Land: Two Traditions in Baum and Tolkien

Dennis Wilson Wise compares the use of Nomes in Baum’s work, and their roots in theology, with the gnostic inspirations of the Gnomes in in the work of J. R. R. Tolkien, and how Baum’s version supports the interpretation of gnomes that proliferates in modern fantasy literature.

Perfect Machines: Baum’s Mechanical Beings and Their Ancient Greek Predecessors

Christina Maffa investigates whether the claim that Tik-Tok is the “first robot in literature” can be true by examining the symbolism of automata in Greek mythology, including The Iliad, and whether Baum’s own creations speak to the same cultural concerns. 

Flights of Fancy in Oz

Ruth Berman takes readers on a tour of the magical flyers of Oz, including flying creatures, flying transportation, and cases when individuals have flown throughout the Famous Forty Oz books.

Oz in the Arts / The Bugle Review

Marc Berezin reviews Fantastic Return to Oz; Atticus Gannaway reviews The Royal Book of Oz (Clover Press edition) by Ruth Plumly Thompson; Angelica Shirley Carpenter reviews The Wizard of Oz board book and storybook adaptations by Starry Forest Books.